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– Twenty-First Century Crusades?
Growth and increased political power in the Neo-Nazi movement.
Germany's new breed of neo-Nazis pose
by Katya Adler
The security services in Germany are scrambling to track down and arrest
far-right fugitives and Germany's federal and state interior ministers
have announced they are taking concrete steps towards banning the
country's far right National Democratic Party, the NPD.
This comes after a public outcry following revelations in November that
a neo-Nazi cell had apparently been able to go on a nationwide spree of
racially motivated murders over several years, under the noses of the
German intelligence services.
The group of three are being held responsible for the deaths of eight
Turkish and one Greek immigrant between 2000 and 2006, as well as a
German policewoman in 2007.
Yet the existence of the group, dubbed the Zwickau cell after the name
of the town where they spent most of their time in hiding, only came to
light in November when two of its members died in an apparent joint
suicide or murder-suicide and the third handed herself in to the
The NPD has been linked to the group, though the allegations have yet to
be accepted in a court of law.
The trio had made a DVD in which they boasted of the killings and said
they had acted to serve the German nation and its people, describing
themselves as the National Socialist Underground - echoing the national
socialism (Nazism) of Hitler's Germany.
The story of the killers has dominated headlines in Germany for months
now and given rise to one of the biggest scandals in post-war Germany.
It turns out intelligence agencies had had the group under surveillance
for years, and even found a bomb-making factory in their garage back in
So why were the trio not stopped earlier? Why were they allowed to
disappear and then stay underground? And why was it that security
services blamed the murders on the Turkish mafia at the time? A
right-wing motive was never investigated.
The failures have prompted some to ask whether there is more than
incompetence to blame, whether Germany's police and security services
contain elements sympathetic to the far right - an accusation the
institutions vehemently deny.
A parliamentary inquiry is currently under way into their activities,
and Newsnight has seen a secret internal report revealing serious
blunders by law enforcement agencies.
When we spoke to Peter Altmaier, a senior official in Chancellor Angela
Merkel's Christian Democrat party, he admitted that mistakes had been
"You have to know Germany is a federal state, and competencies are
shared and divided between federal and state levels... and because we
have drawn the lessons from the Nazi dictatorship, we have very limited
powers of police and security institutions.
"There have been hints and indications of right-wing extremism that were
not taken seriously enough, and therefore we have put this very high on
the political agenda."
Another question that now worries many Germans is just how big a threat
the far right poses.
Human rights groups say more than 180 people have been killed in
right-wing attacks in Germany over the last 20 years.
Neo-Nazis have murdered more people in post-war Germany than any other
single group, including Islamists and the far left. But this is not yet
reflected in official data.
Could it be that Germany's sensitivity to its history has made it want
to play down modern-day right wing extremism?
"Martin", a former neo-Nazi leader who asked to be quoted anonymously
for fear of revenge attacks, was an active member of the far right for
11 years. He has now left the movement and encourages others to do so
through an organisation called Exit.
Martin told us the revelations about the Zwickau cell should have come
as no surprise to the authorities:
"The militant scene has always said we need people who are willing and
able and trained in case it comes to civil war, and neo-Nazi propaganda
always talks about civil war. The scene is armed. It's military.
"Weapons training is carried out in secret. In the Arab world, for
example, with freedom movements there. The right-wing scene sees itself
as a freedom movement."
There is a growing collection of secretive far-right groups in Germany
which call themselves the "Free Forces".
Intelligence services say this is the fastest-spreading section of
Germany's far-right movement.
They say the cliche of the neo-Nazi being a boot-wearing, young,
unemployed male skinhead is out of date. Nowadays you cannot always tell
who is a neo-Nazi and who is not.
The Free Forces are attracting a new crowd, including students and
middle-class professionals. Germans speak of a new generation of
Kravattennazis, literally "Tie Nazis", as opposed to the traditional
Stiefelnazis, or "Boot Nazis".
They use modern forms of protest and are harnessing social media.
Take The Immortals, for example - anti-globalisation, anti-capitalist
and anti-democratic, they warn of the impending extinction of the German
people and call for a Germany for the Germans.
Hard for the authorities to catch, they use text messaging to organise
spontaneous night-time demonstrations across the country, especially in
The protesters wear black cloaks and white masks, reminiscent of the
hacker-anarchists Anonymous, to hide their identity. After 15 minutes on
the street, they are gone.
"The leadership is always trying to attract members of the so-called
upper classes and students who, one day, can act as lawyers or doctors
for the far right," Martin explained.
"It's all done very quietly, out of the public eye. You would never
imagine that some of those people would support the movement and they
may deny their affiliation in public, but they are very much part of the
"You can't describe the far right as a fringe group any more. All parts
of German society are found in it."
But what exactly do they want?
Far-right activists are camera-shy. They say they are hounded by police
and hemmed in by post-war German laws which make it illegal to question
the Holocaust and demonstrate public appreciation of Nazi Germany,
leading to a number of far-right groups being shut down and their
We visited Berlin's best-known neo-Nazi pub, The Executioner, to see if
we could tempt the punters there to talk.
Most people in the dimly lit, windowless establishment eyed us with
suspicion and distaste, but after a couple of "Himla'' cocktails, Uwe
Dreisch, the former head of a now-banned neo-Nazi group, sat down with
us and said:
"Who are we? We are nationalists. We care deeply about our fatherland.
We don't like the state that exists here right now in Germany. We want
to rebuild our country for our citizens, the German people.
"We want to protect our culture, our country, our religion. In Britain,
you're also proud of your country, but here I, as a German, am a
second-class citizen. This is because we live with eternal war guilt
here in Germany. Others get preferential treatment, not us Germans.
"Those outside here who say this pub is full of evil Nazis, how would
they know? They're afraid to talk to us. They just try to ban us."
What many lawmakers in Germany say they do not like is that the far
right rejects the German constitution and the Federal German Republic.
Supporters of the far right want a new order in Germany, but while they
live under the current system, some are establishing what they call
"national liberated zones", dotted across the country.
The most famous example is Jamel, a village in northern Germany which
has been largely taken over by the far right.
In the middle of the village is a brightly painted Nazi-style mural in
which a traditionally dressed German mother cradles her baby, surrounded
by her other children.
Also painted there is a proclamation that Jamel is free, social and
We spoke to Udo Pastoers, number two in the NPD, the legal political
wing of the far right, and the leader of the party's elected
representatives in the regional parliament of Mecklenburg-Western
Pomerania, the area in which Jamel sits.
Mr Pastoers was keen to discuss the NPD's current campaign calling for
more indigenous Germans to have children.
He showed me a campaign poster emblazoned with the phrase "German
children need our country. Stop the German people dying out" in which
two beautiful blonde parents frolic at a sandy water's edge with their
blonde and beaming children.
Mr Pastoers said the birth-rate in Germany was far too low and that
women should "reproduce" more, so that Germany could still deserve the
"Imagine a country called Germany that is filled only with Africans,
Arabs, Asians. Biology is our priority," he said.
The NPD does not do very well in the polls. Still, it has elected
representatives in two of out of Germany's 16 regional parliaments.
Mr Pastoers told us the party was virtually gagged by the German
authorities. If they really could speak openly, he said, a huge chunk of
the German electorate would support them.
The NPD insists the stigma of being associated with the far right in
modern Germany means that people who would like to vote for it do not
In an attempt to boost its numbers, the party is currently concentrating
on social issues, taking advantage of widespread unease caused by the
global economic crisis.
They and the wider far-right movement run youth centres and football
clubs, and offer welfare advice and family outings for those short of
Former neo-Nazi Martin, who spoke of close links between the NPD and
extremist groups like the one he used to lead, said the party's social
card was insincere.
"They can't win over all parts of society with anti-Semitic and Nazi
rhetoric. The welfare debate touches most people these days, but it is
"One well-known neo-Nazi activist said: 'We'll make sure to be where
people are suffering most, where they are shouting for help...
Eventually we'll have them where we want them.'''
Germany's far right is a minority movement but one the country's
authorities cannot afford to ignore.
Story no longer posted.